Submit a preprint


Behavioural synchronization in a multilevel society of feral horsesuse asterix (*) to get italics
Tamao Maeda, Cedric Sueur, Satoshi Hirata, Shinya YamamotoPlease use the format "First name initials family name" as in "Marie S. Curie, Niels H. D. Bohr, Albert Einstein, John R. R. Tolkien, Donna T. Strickland"
<p style="text-align: justify;">Behavioural synchrony among individuals is essential for group-living organisms. It is still largely unknown how synchronization functions in a multilevel society, which is a nested assemblage of multiple social levels between many individuals. Our aim was to build a model that explained the synchronization of activity in a multilevel society of feral horses. We used multi-agent based models based on four hypotheses: A) horses do not synchronize, B) horses synchronize with any individual in any unit, C) horses synchronize only within units and D) horses synchronize across and within units, but internal synchronization is stronger. Our empirical data obtained from drone observations best supported hypothesis D. This result suggests that animals in a multilevel society coordinate with other conspecifics not only within a unit but at an inter-unit level. In this case, inter-individual distances are much longer than those in most previous models which only considered local interaction within a few body lengths.</p> should fill this box only if you chose 'All or part of the results presented in this preprint are based on data'. URL must start with http:// or https:// should fill this box only if you chose 'Scripts were used to obtain or analyze the results'. URL must start with http:// or https://
You should fill this box only if you chose 'Codes have been used in this study'. URL must start with http:// or https://
Multilevel society, drone, synchronization, social network
NonePlease indicate the methods that may require specialised expertise during the peer review process (use a comma to separate various required expertises).
Animal networks, Biological Networks, Dynamics on networks, Network models, Social networks, Synchronization in networks
No need for them to be recommenders of PCI Network Sci. Please do not suggest reviewers for whom there might be a conflict of interest. Reviewers are not allowed to review preprints written by close colleagues (with whom they have published in the last four years, with whom they have received joint funding in the last four years, or with whom they are currently writing a manuscript, or submitting a grant proposal), or by family members, friends, or anyone for whom bias might affect the nature of the review - see the code of conduct
e.g. John Doe []
2021-02-23 02:46:18
Brenda McCowan
Krishna Balasubramaniam, Brianne Beisner, Frédéric Amblard